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Friday, August 2, 2013

Photovoltaic Systems and Solar Water Heating

Solar energy is basically the energy which is extracted from sun. Solar energy or sun’s energy can be used for heating, lighting, electricity, cooling, businesses and industries. Day by day energy needs are growing as the human development goes on! Solar energy is not unknown to anyone now. There are different ways to extract and use the sun’s energy. As sun is free source of energy so it will be more beneficial for mankind. Here we will discuss about Photovoltaic systems (Solar Cells) and solar water heating.

1. Photovoltaic Systems (Solar Cells)


Photovoltaic systems or solar cells coverts the sunlight into electricity, these are made of semi conducting materials. They absorb the sunlight, and solar energy lets the electrons loose from their atoms. This process allow the electrons to flow through the photovoltaic cell, in result electricity is produced.

This process of converting sunlight into electricity is called photovoltaic effect (PV).

2. Solar Hot Water


If we check any lake where sun shine perfectly we will judge that shallow water of the lake will be warm, while the depth water temperature will be less. That’s nature’s way of heating water. This tells us that we can use solar energy to heat the water also.

The sun can be used to heat the buildings and swimming pools. The most common water heating systems for buildings have two main parts:

  • Solar Collector
  • Storage tank

Solar Collector


Flat plate collector is most common solar collector. Flat plate collector is mounted on roofs. Flat plate collector is a thin, flat, rectangular box with transparent cover.  The transparent cover faces the sun which collects the solar heat directly.

There are small tubes which run through the box carrying water or fluid to get it heated. There is an absorber attached with the tubes painted black. The absorber heats up and makes the water heat up in the tubes. 

Storage Tank


After that the liquid is passed to storage tank which hold the liquid. The storage tank is perfectly insulated to keep liquid hot.

Solar water heaters can be active or passive. But most common are the active systems. In active systems usually pumps are used to move the water between tank and collector. On other side the passive heating systems rely on gravity and tendency of water to move as it heat up.

Solar Water Heating for Swimming Pools


Solar water heating systems for swimming pools are simple. Filter pump of the pool pumps water from the solar collector. Solar collector is made of black plastic or rubber. The water from solar collector is pumped into the pool.

Sunday, June 10, 2012

Buying Wholesale Solar Panels



Solar power use has become more pronounced in the last few years owing to many factors. An aversion from fossil fuel resources, because of price hike and environmental concerns has prompted many people to shift to renewable energy. To complement, a sharp decline in solar panels prices has attracted many people to solar energy market. The ease of installation and minimal maintenance are other advantages, resulting in the solar panel demand to shoot up.

In particular, home owners are using solar power, for it is usually more economical than the utility power supply. It is ideal to invest in this growing market time. Before you start this business you need to have knowledge of the market and there are a few formalities which need to be fulfilled when you dive into this business.

Below are mentioned a few basics you need to know before buying solar panels:

1. Registration with Internal Revenue Service


Before you embark on to the business of solar panels it is very important that obtain an Employer Identification Number from the Internal Revenue Service. To buy solar panels in bulk from whole sale dealers you have to be a legitimate business owner. Whether you are a sole business owner, a proprietor ship or a public limited company; this EIN number serves as a business owner identity. This EIN number serves many other purposes for any business. You can get this EIN number free of cost.

2. Obtain Required Solar Licenses


Usually you will need a license to sell solar panels in your area. This is because other regulations have been put into practice for providing incentives to the solar panel consumers. Contact the office of your secretary of state or attorney general’s office for obtaining this license. However there are some states where you don’t need this license but it is better to have precautionary measures taken.

3. Know your Financial Resources


You should be completely aware of what you have in the pocket when negotiating a deal for whole sale solar panels. There are many dealers who will give you the solar panels at retail price by pretending it as a wholesale price. It is very important that you get quotes from several dealers in order to get an idea of the wholesale price. When you know your budget you can negotiate better deals. A legitimate wholesale dealer always asks for bulk supply of solar panels.

4. Ratings of the Equipment


It is very important to know what sort of equipment is required in your area of sale. Some solar panels are capable to supply large amounts of electric power and are costly enough, but may not be required by the majority of consumers. Some solar panels may be too small to pick an electric load of a typical home. Make sure your whole sale supplier provides a variety of solar panels.

5. Search the Internet


In order to get the best deals visit different selling websites. You can also consider the option of importing the solar panels in bulk if feasible. Ask for samples in order to ascertain the quality of panels and the delivery standards of your whole sale dealer.

Thursday, June 7, 2012

Best Ways for Solar Panel Mounting



Solar panel is actually used to generate energy. The greatest problem of this century is no doubt the energy crisis so the need of such alternatives automatically increases rapidly. Some types of solar panel mounting systems for homes specifically, are discussed here. They are also known as residential mounting systems.

Checking Your Roof


Before starting off with these systems and getting them installed, you must check the undercarriage of your roof. This can be done by any qualified structural engineer so do get their services prior to the installment. It is not required by every country to have an engineer’s stamp on the building but for a Vibrant, a structural engineer is must.

Building Codes


UBC mandates the techniques and the building materials. It actually stands for universal building code. Codes are given after every few years. When any city or a country decides for adopting a new UBC version, the efficiency varies.

Local buildings code usually has some variations from the standard techniques. People must also consider the fire department and electrical code regulations before the installment.

1. Flush Mount


Flush mount is a standard mounting system. The benefit is that a less space is taken by them and it has the lowest visual impact. If you want to install it, your roof will be penetrated into the joists by using a 5/8” long bolt. A standard roofing sealant is also used. There is a metal of L-shaped foot which is fixed by the bolt. Vents, pipes, and other structures are also used accordingly.

2. Tilt Mount


Metal legs are added to the flush mounting for tilting the tops of the panels. It is done in order to gain a better angle towards the southern horizon. This increases the cost in labor and material but you have a benefit that the output is better. The sun hits the mount at an appropriate angle. Thus the maximum solar energy can be used and utilized.

3. Fin Mount


It is specifically for the slopes which face east or west. So this mount is fixed to get a better angle to the south. Legs of varying lengths are installed and this system is comparatively higher than the other ones.

4. Shadows


There are more than one row in tilt and fin mount system. A separate shadow is cast by each row. That’s why each row must be placed at a reasonable distance so the shadow couldn’t be cast by the southern row on the next one. The slope of the roof and the tilt of the planes determine the distance of the rows.

5. Side Mounts


Cantilevered window can be mounted to almost every building side. But prior to the installment the structural engineer must check the condition of the wall, design process and other factors.

6. Ground Mounts


They normally require digging holes for pouring concrete in them. It is done to secure the poles, rack bases etc.

7. Parking Canopies


It is better to have a covered parking area. So install the solar panels and get the shade.

Wednesday, June 6, 2012

Top 20 Countries with CO2 Emissions




Every country in the world contribute different amount of heat trapping gases to the atmosphere. The following list of 20 countries for CO2 emissions is compiled by the Energy Information Agency (Department of Energy) that estimates carbon dioxide emissions from all sources of fossil fuel burning and consumption. 


Here is the list of top 20 countries in the world with highest carbon dioxide emissions.  A graph of the top 20 carbon dioxide emitters is also available.



Country

Total Emissions
(Million metric tons of CO2)
Per Capita Emissions
(Tons/capita)
1.
China
6017.69
4.58
2.
United States
5902.75
19.78
3.
Russia
1704.36
12.00
4.
India
1293.17
1.16
5.
Japan
1246.76
9.78
6.
Germany
857.60
10.40
7.
Canada
614.33
18.81
8.
United Kingdom
585.71
9.66
9.
South Korea
514.53
10.53
10.
Iran
471.48
7.25
11.
Italy
468.19
8.05
12.
South Africa
443.58
10.04
13.
Mexico
435.60
4.05
14.
Saudi Arabia
424.08
15.70
15.
France
417.75
6.60
16.
Australia
417.06
20.58
17.
Brazil
377.24
2.01
18.
Spain
372.61
9.22
19.
Ukraine
328.72
7.05
20.
Poland
303.42
7.87
































The list and the graph compiled by Energy Information agency shows that major carbon dioxide emission are made by developed countries and major emerging economy nations lead in total carbon dioxide emissions. Developed countries are having typically high carbon dioxide emissions and some developing countries lead in the growth rate of carbon dioxide emissions. Obviously these major carbon dioxide emissions by big developed and developing countries are at the core of the challenges the world community faces in finding effective and equitable solutions.